Chronology of effects - References

  1. Acres Consulting Services Ltd
    • Study of the disruption of electric power systems by magnetic storms, Earth Phys. Branch Open File 77-19, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, 1975.
  2. Albertson, V.D. and J.M. Thorson
    • Power system disturbances during a K-8 geomagnetic storm: August 4, 1972, IEEE Trans. Power App. & Sys., vol. PAS-93, 1025-1030, 1974.
  3. Allen, J.
    • Catalogue of magnetic disturbances using the aa* index, available from World Data Centre C-1, Boulder, 1994.
  4. Anderson, C.W., L.J. Lanzerotti, and C.G. Maclennan
    • Outage of the L-4 system and the geomagnetic disturbances of August 4, 1972, Bell Syst. Tech. J., 53, 1817-1837, 1974.
  5. Angot, A.
    • The Aurora Borealis, Appleton and Co, New York, 1897.
  6. Aspnes, J.D., R.P. Merritt, and S.-I. Akasofu
    • Effects of geomagnetically induced current on electric power systems, The Northern Engineer, 13, No 3, 34-38, 1981.
  7. Axe, G.A.
    • The effects of the earth's magnetism on submarine cable, Post Office Electrical Engineers Journal, vol 61, no 1, 37-43, 1968.
  8. Barlow, W.H
    • On the spontaneous electrical currents observed in wires of the electric telegraph, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, 139, 61-72, 1849.
  9. Béland, J., and K. Small
    • Space weather effects on power transmission systems: The cases of Hydro-Quebec and Transpower New Zealand Ltd, in Effects of Space Weather on Technology Infrastructure, edited by I. A. Daglis, pp. 287-299, Kluwer Acad., Dordrecht, Netherlands. (2004)
  10. Blais, G. and P. Metsa
    • Operating the Hydro-Québec grid under magnetic storm conditions since the storm of March 13, 1989, Proc. Solar-Terrestrial Predictions Workshop, Ottawa, May 18-22, 1992, ed. J. Hruska, M.A. Shea, D.F. Smart, G. Heckman, vol 1, 108-130, 1993.
  11. Boteler, D.H. and Jansen Van Beek, G.
    • August 4, 1972 revisited: A new look at the geomagnetic disturbance that caused the L4 cable system outage, Geophys. Res. Lett.,26,577-580,1999.
  12. Bozoki, B. (chair) et al. (Working group K-11, IEEE power system relaying committee)
    • The effects of GIC on protective relaying, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol 11, 725-739, 1996.
  13. Burbank, J.E.
    • Earth currents: and a proposed method for their investigation, Terr. Magn. Atmos. Elec., vol X, 23-49, 1905.
  14. Chapman, S. and J. Bartels
    • Geomagnetism, Oxford University Press, 1940.
  15. Clement, K.T.
    • Das grosse Nordlicht in der Nacht zum 29 August 1959 und die Telegraphenverwirrung in Nord-Amerika und Europe, (The great northern light on the night before 29 August 1859 and the confusion of the telegraph in North America and Europe), Hamburg, pp. 1-21 (in German), 1860.
  16. Cucchi, G. and J. Ponder
    • Summary of March 13, 1989 geomagnetic storm effects, presented at the Dallas Trnasmission & Distribution Conference, Sept 26, 1991.
  17. Davidson, W.F.
    • The magnetic storm of March 24, 1940 - effects in the power system, presentation to the Edison Electric Institute, May 7, 1940.
  18. Elovaara, J., P. Lindblad, A. Viljanen, T. Mäkinen, R. Pirjola, S. Larsson, and B. Kielen
    • Geomagnetically induced currents in the Nordic power system and their effects on equipment, control, protection and operation, pres. CIGRE Colloquim, 30 Aug - 5 Sept., 1992.
  19. Eroshenko, E. A., A. V. Belov, D. Boteler, S. P. Gaidash, S. L. Lobkov, R. Pirjola, and L. Trichtchenko
    • Effects of strong geomagnetic storms on Northern railways in Russia, Advances in Space Research, 46, pp. 1102-1110. (2010)
  20. Finn, W.
    • Influences of the sunspots upon electrical and magnetic forces of the Earth, Scientific American Supplement, No 1457, 23351-23352, Dec 5, 1903.
  21. Gaunt, C. T., and G. Coetzee
    • Transformer failures in regions incorrectly considered to have low GIC risk, paper presented at Power Tech, Inst. of Electr. and Electron. Eng., Lausanne, Switzerland, doi:0.1109/PCT.2007.4538419. (2007)
  22. Germaine, L.W.
    • The magnetic storm of March 24, 1940 - effects in the communication system, presentation to the Edison Electric Institute, May 7, 1940.
  23. Harang, L.
    • Maximalwerte der Erdstromspannungen in der Nähe der Nordlichtzone während sehr intensiver erdmagnetischer Störungen (Maximum values of earth current voltages near the auroral zone during very intense geomagnetic disturbances), Gerl. Beitr. Geophys., 57, 310-316 (in German, with an English summary), 1941.
  24. Kappenman, J.G.
    • Geomagnetic storms and their impact on power systems, IEEE Power Engineering Review, 16, 5, 1996.
  25. Kappenman, J.G.
    • Storm sudden commencement events and the associated geomagnetically induced current risks to ground-based systems at low-latitude and midlatitude locations, Space Weather, 1(3), 1016, doi:10.1029/2003SW000009. (2003)
  26. Karsberg, A., Swedenborg, G. and Wyke, K.
    • Geomagnetic storms and their impact on power systems, IEEE Power Engineering Review, 16, 5, 1996.
  27. Lanzerotti, L.J. and G.P. Gregori
    • Telluric currents: the natural environment and interactions with man-made systems, The Earth's Electrical Environment, Nat. Acad. Press, Washington, DC, 232-257, 1986.
  28. Liu, C.-M, L.-G. Liu, and R. Pirjola
    • Geomagnetically induced currents in the high-voltage power grid in China, IEEE transactions on power delivery, 24 (4). (2009)
  29. Lockyer, W.J.S.
    • Magnetic storms, aurorae and solar phenomena, Nature, vol 69, No 1775, 9-10, 1903.
  30. Lundstedt, H.
    • The sun, space weather and GIC effects in Sweden, Advances in Space Research, 37, pp. 1182-1191. (2006)
  31. McNish, A.G.
    • Magnetic storms, presentation to the Edison Electric Institute, May 7, 1940.
  32. Pirjola, R., K. Kauristie, H. Lappalainen, A. Viljanen, and A. Pulkkinen
    • Space weather risk, Space Weather, 3 (S02A02), doi :10.1029/2004SW000112. (2005)
  33. Preece, W.H.
    • "Earth Currents", Letter to the Editor, Nature, No 1276, vol 49, p 554, April 12, 1894.
  34. Prescott, G.B., History
    • Theory and Practice of the Electric Telegraph, Ticknor and Fields, Boston, 1866.
  35. Prescott, G.B.
    • Observations made at Boston, Mass., and vicinity, in Article on The great auroral exhibition of August 28th to September 4th, 1859, Amer. J. Science and Arts, vol XXIX, 92-97, 1860.
  36. Pulkkinen, A., S. Lindahl, A. Viljanen, and R. Pirjola
    • Geomagnetic storm of 29-31 October 2003: Geomagnetically induced currents and their relation to problems in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system, Space Weather, 3(S08C03), doi:10.1029/2004SW000123. (2005)
  37. Sanders, R.
    • Effects of terrestrial electromagnetic storms on wireline communications, IRE Trans. Commun. Syst. (December), 367-377, 1961.
  38. Slothower, J.C. and V.D. Albertson
    • The effects of solar magnetic activity on electric power systems, J. Minn. Academy of Science, 34, 94-100, 1967.
  39. Stetson, H.T.
    • Sunspots in Action, The Ronald Press Company, New York, 252pp, 1947.
  40. Tillberg, H. and F. Andersson
    • Short report on disturbances in the Swedish power networks caused by magnetic storms, pres. CIGRE Colloquium, 12 - 16 Sept., 1977.
  41. Trichtchenko, L., A. Zhukov, R. van der Linden, S. M. Stankov, N. Jakowski, I. Stanislawska, G. Juchnikowski, P. Wilkinson, and G. Patterson
    • November 2004 space weather events: Real-time observations and forecasts, Space Weather, 5 (S06001), doi:10.1029/2006SW000281. (2007)
  42. Varley, C.F.
    • Discussion of a few papers on earth currents, J. Soc. Telegraph Engineers, 2, 111-114, 1873.
  43. Wallerius, A.
    • Solen gav Sverige en strömstöt (The Sun gave Sweden a "current shock"), Ny Teknik, 29, p3, (in Swedish), 1982.
  44. Winckler, J.R., L. Peterson, R. Hoffman, and R. Arnoldy
    • Auroral X-rays, cosmic rays, and related phenomena during the storm of Feb 10-11, 1958, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 597, 1959.