Space Weather is a term which has become accepted over the past few years to refer to a collection of physical processes, beginning at the Sun and ultimately affecting human activities on Earth and in space. The Sun emits energy, as flares of electromagnetic radiation (radio waves, infra-red, light, ultraviolet, X-rays), and as energetic electrically charged particles through coronal mass ejections and plasma streams. The particles travel outwards as the solar wind, carrying parts of the Sun's magnetic field with them. The electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light and takes about 8 minutes to move from Sun to Earth, whereas the charged particles travel more slowly, taking from a few hours to several days to move from Sun to Earth. The radiation and particles interact with the Earth's (geo)magnetic field and outer atmosphere in complex ways, causing concentrations of energetic particles to collect and electric currents to flow in regions of the outer atmosphere (magnetosphere and ionosphere). These can result in geomagnetic variations, aurora, and can affect a number of technologies.